What is Mesothelioma Cancer? Types of Mesothelioma? Survival rates of Mesothelioma


What is Mesothelioma Cancer? Types of Mesothelioma? Survival rates of Mesothelioma



Is Cancer a disease?

Cancer is not a solo disease, it is the committee of diseases. Cancer is a class of malignant disease in which the group of cells show uncontrolled growth that means the division of cells beyond the normal limits, instruction on and destruction of adjacent tissues, some time metastasis means spread from one location to the another in the body via blood and lymph. Cancer also grows when the cells forget how to die. The malignant cell in normal human beings has an analogous biochemical characteristic in comparison to the normal human cell. Therefore, all agents who are effective with cancer cells are also injurious to normal human cells. Cancer grows by progressive, infiltration and invasion tissue. Cancer is often the result of activation of proto-oncogenes to oncogenes and the inactivation of tumour-suppressor genes.

•What is oncology?

The branch of medicine concerned study, research, determination, treatment or cure and prevention of cancer is called oncology. A doctor who treats the tumours and cancer is called Oncologist. These oncologists provide medical care to cancer patients. The main areas of the oncology field are radiation, surgical and medical.

•How does cancer start in our body?

Our body is a combination of 100 million cells. The whole body is made up of cells, so these cells play a major role at the beginning of tumour or cancer cells. Every day the new cells are formed and a number of cells are breakdown. Cancer can begin when just one of the cells start to multiply too much and form a tumour.

Different types of cancer-causing agents and what is the most common cause of cancer-

The agents that cause cancer include chemical carcinogens, ionizing radiation, viral and bacterial infections, hormonal change and immune system dysfunction. Gene mutation that occurs after the birth of a baby is the most common cause of cancer.

Nomenclature of cancer-

•Neoplasia and neoplasm - They are the scientific designation for cancer disease. A neoplasm can be benign or malignant.
•Cancer- This word is most commonly used and usually understood as malignant neoplasms. It is occasionally used instead of carcinoma.
•Tumor- It means lump, neoplastic, inflammatory. It is benign or malignant.


•How many types of cancer?

Cancers are classified by the type of cell that resembles the tumour and therefore the tissue presumed to be the origin of the tumour. The general categories of cancer are given below -
•Carcinoma- These are derived from epithelial cells. The common cancers are represented by this group like prostate cancer,  colon cancer and breast cancer etc.
•Sarcoma- The bone marrow cancer or tumour is called sarcoma. In this cancer, the bone marrow contains malignant cancer cells. This is also derived from the collective tissue of mesenchymal cells.
•Lymphoma and leukaemia- This lymphoma and leukaemia cancer is the cancer of the lymph system and bone marrow.
•Glioma- This tumour is derived from glia the common type of brain cell.
•Germinoma- The cancer dead cells started divided with the germ cells, which are found in ovary and testicle.
•Choriocarcinoma- This malignant tumour is derived from the placenta. It is trophoblastic cancer. It is spread to the lungs.
• Mesothelioma- These tumours are derived from the mesothelial cells lining the peritoneum and the pleura.


What kinds of cancer are worst?

The worst types of cancer are mesothelioma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour, laryngeal cancer, other lung cancers, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, bronchial cancer and breast cancer.
Now we discuss the Mesothelioma.

What is mesothelioma?

This classification of tumour originated from mesothelial cells. The tumour that appears on the lining of the lungs, heart and midsection like the stomach. This is a fatal disease. This is the most aggressive cancer. The lungs are the organ in the human body that affect specifically. This cancer generates from the tiny membrane of tissues. This thin layer surrounds the many other body portions. Mesothelioma is a very rapid growth of destructive cells of cancer. The depth of this disease is completely painful. Mesothelioma is killing disease.

What are additional words used for mesothelioma?

Pleural mesothelioma and malignant mesothelioma are the names that are used for this deadly disease.

Was it necessary to find the types of mesothelioma?

Yes, research is essential. Research shows that the part of the body damaged by cancer and distinguishing the extent and severity of cancer. Therapies are given to their patients according to the class. Science has improved to cure this cancer as soon as possible by distributing it into types.

According to the latest research how many types have been discovered of mesothelioma?

There are 7 subtypes of mesothelioma is detected by the latest research.
1. Pleural mesothelioma- It is the most ordinary kind of this malignant condition. In this type of cancer, the chest lining or pleural lining affected. pleural accounts for 73% to 75% of cases of mesothelioma.
2. Peritoneal mesothelioma- The region of this mesothelioma is the lining of the stomach (abdomen, peritoneum). Almost 10% to 20% of cases occur in this fatal disease. Peritoneal type is slightly less researchable than the pleural malignant.
3. Testicular mesothelioma- This type of mesothelioma is considerably rare. Maximum 90 and less than 90 cases affected by this kind of cancer. In this category, linning generated in tunica vaginalis coated the testes.
4. Pericardial mesothelioma- The pericardial mesothelioma is also extensively rare type. Almost less than150 cases confirmed. The linning is beginnings from the heart and the whole heart is prematurely get damaged.
5. Epithelioid mesothelioma- This mesothelioma affected the epithelium and epithelioid cell. The lining developed from the epithelium cells around the lungs.
6. Sarcomatoid mesothelioma- This is particularly rare. The lining of  Sarcomatoid cells are firstly affected by this mesothelioma. 10% to 20% of cases result in this category.
7. Biphasic mesothelioma- This type is extremely rare. In this kind, both the epithelium and sarcomatoid cells get destroyed. Maximum accounts for 20% of cases of this mesothelioma.


Why mesothelioma is extremely rare?

This category of cancer originated from the mesothelial cells lining the peritoneum and the pleura. The tumour involves both layers of pleura and as it grows it obliterates the pleural cavity, compressing the lung. Lymph and blood-spread metastases are typically found in the hilar and mesenteric lymph nodes, the other lung, liver, thyroid and adrenal glands, bone, skeleton muscle and the brain.

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Causes of mesothelioma-

The asbestos inhalation is the fundamental cause of mesothelioma. Ionizing radiations, immune system dysfunction, former injury near the heart and stomach also become tumours. This tumour is linked with previous exposure to asbestos dust. The lungs and abdomen lining totally damaged by asbestos fibres. The asbestos workers and people living near asbestos mines and factories. Smoking multiplies the risk of mesothelioma several folds in people exposed to asbestos. It is usually associated with blue asbestos (crocidolite fibres).
•Early symptoms of mesothelioma-
The symptoms that are given below are for all classes of mesothelioma.
shortness of breath, chest pain weight loss, fever, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, bloating, swelling, abnormal heart rate, cough, painless lumps of testes, scrotal node, night sweats, fluid flow around lungs and other affected organs decrease the stamina and weakness in muscles.
• New discoveries in the determination of mesothelioma-
Most cancers are diagnosed by the biopsy and also mesothelioma is confirmed by biopsy. Depending upon the location of the tumour, the biopsy is may be simple or a serious method of detection. Most patients with cancer undergo CT scan is to determine the actual site of tumours. The other methods are chest X-Ray, computerized axial tomography.
•Whether researchers have originated a definite treatment for cancer and is mesothelioma curable disease?
No, the researchers still couldn't discover a definite treatment for this mesothelioma and also the mesothelioma is not curable at any first, second, third and fourth stage. But the experimenters work 24×7 hours to find out the therapy to control and treat this deadly disease.
•Major research centres in the U.S for mesothelioma.
> M D Anderson Cancer Centre, Houston
> Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston.
> Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston.
> Lung Institute at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston.
> H. Lee Moffit Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida.


• Affective therapy for mesothelioma -

> Heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy- This therapy is most effective for the mesothelioma. By this heated drugs are interested in the damaged area. This treatment is given after the surgery. Cell destruction in this chemotherapy follows first order of kinetics I.e. total no.of cancer cells are killed. Heated drugs are the most potent agents act on rapidly multiplies cells, malignant as well as normal cells. If the total no. of cells in the body is 1 million and 10% killed following a course of chemotherapy than 100,000 will be killed if it is 1000 then only 100 will be killed.

> Immunotherapy- immunotherapy is the use of the immune mechanism against the mesothelioma. This therapy stimulates the immune system of a cancer patient. In most of the cases, it works to treat mesothelioma. But sometimes it has been not able to cure mesothelioma. Major immunotherapy agents are Opdivo and Yervoy are easily available. Keytruda drug is mostly used in immunotherapy.

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