Diabetes Explained - Types, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Medication

Hey guys, welcome again this is Navjeet Noor, today I am coming with info about diabetes, we all realize that sugar or diabetes is the most common disorder, about 80% people suffered from this. but nowadays children also affected by this disease. this is the sign of our unhealthy lifestyle.

Diabetes Explained - Types, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Medication

Diabetes Explained - Types, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Medication


Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that causes high blood glucose (sugar) levels in the body because of the defect in insulin production. insulin released by the pancreas when we eat food and insulin allows the sugar to go from the blood into cells. when the cells of the body not using insulin well, then sugar begins to build in our blood. this is also resulting in Hyperglycemia. Insulin regulates the uptake of glucose by most cells from the blood. The deficiency of this hormone and the insensitivity of its receptors play a major role in all forms of diabetes mellitus.

WHO classified Diabetes into three forms

First is type 1 diabetes – This diabetes is also known as childhood diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetes. Most of the people affected by type 1 diabetes. Exercise or diet can't prevent this. This type can affect adults, and children that’s why it is termed as juvenile diabetes.

What causes diabetes?

This diabetes can be caused by autoimmune destruction, accompanied by antibodies which are directed opposite to insulin. The loss of insulin secretion the function of the alpha cell is also abnormal. Without insulin, ketosis and diabetic ketoacidosis development will result in coma or death.

Symptoms of type 1 Diabetes

Excessive thirst, hyperopia means blurred vision, other eye problems, fungal infections, foot ulcer, excessive urination, an increase in heart rate, and weight loss.
Diagnosis-  this type of diabetes can be diagnosed by a random glucose test, a fasting glucose test, primary plasma test. Fasting plasma glucose level at or above 126 mg/dl.
Treatment – the major goal of treating diabetes by controlling the blood glucose level without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes can be treated with exercise, insulin, and by the diabetic diet.

Type 2 Diabetes Explained

This type of diabetes also known as maturity-onset diabetes, adult-onset diabetes, and non-insulin-dependent onset. 
The main cause of  The main cause of this category is defective insulin secretion, and defective responsiveness to insulin, which involves the insulin receptor in the cell membrane.
This diabetes may unnoticed for years since the symptoms are milder means lack of ketoacidosis episodes and some other complications which results in renal failure, vascular disease, and vision damage.

Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes

This type random glucose test, a glucose two hours after 75%g of glucose test, random plasma glucose at or above 200 mg/dL.

Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

Treatment- type 2 is first treated with weight reduction, diabetic diet, and exercise. When this order fails to control than the oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, insulin medicines are considerable. There are some medications for type 2 diabetes.


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Medications that decrease the amount of glucose produced by the liver

Biguanides drugs are used for many years. The metformin is unique in its ability to decrease glucose production from the liver. Metformin does not increase insulin levels, when used alone, it is used with oral agents. It should not be used in patients with kidney impairment and should be used with caution in those with liver impairment.

Medications that increase the sensitivity of cells to insulin  

Thes drugs are thiazolidinediones lowers blood glucose by improving target cell response to insulin. Sister compounds are now available with a better safety profile. These drugs include pioglitazone and rosiglitazone.

New medications that affect glycemic control

Symlin is the new class of injected antihyperglycemic medications for the patients suffers from type 1 and type 2 diabetes or treated with insulin. Symlin reduces post-meal blood sugar peaks, reduces glucose fluctuations throughout the day, and lower the mealtime insulin requirements.



Gestational Diabetes

This type of diabetes develops during pregnancy and may improve or disappear after the delivery.  It may damage the health of the fetus. 20% to50% of women develops a type 2 diabetes later in life. This diabetes occurs about 2% - 5% of all pregnancies it is temporary and fully curable, and if untreated then may cause other problems like macrosomia. Symptoms are polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia. 


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