Hypertension - Causes, Side effects, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

Hypertension - Causes, Side effects, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention


Hypertension - Causes, Side effects, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

Hey everyone welcomes to THE TECH GUARD this is Navjeet, today we will talk about Hypertension. In simple words, hypertension is high blood pressure. When the blood put against the walls of arteries that collect oxygenated blood, with force and blood flow through arteries, this force is called blood pressure. The normal readings of systolic and diastolic blood pressure are 120/80mm Hg. when the heart works more and pumps more blood then pressure increases on arteries, this is resulting in high blood pressure. Some initial causes of high blood pressure are physical activity, overthinking and taking unnecessary stress, etc.  worrying about the only kind of thing that is really deadly to your life and health. if that thing is not so important, then forget all those nonsense. Take a deep breath, discuss your emotions and feelings with your family and friends. initially, This is the non-pharmacological therapy for your blood pressure problem. In the race of life we all have no time for our loved ones, we want just to win this race that’s not enough we have to win a peaceful life and enjoy every moment, but we forgot this and stress is start playing with our body, our blood pressure starts increasing day by day and when these multiple high blood pressure readings over a long period this condition is called Hypertension.

Some risk factors which develops the hypertension are- above 60years of age, race, heredity, salt sensitivity, inactive lifestyle, heavy alcohol consumption, and the use of oral contraceptives.

Types of hypertension

Types of hypertension essential or primary hypertension in which we don't know about the cause of hypertension.

Second is secondary hypertension which is caused by any medical condition. It is the cause of different disorders like kidney failure.

Effect of hypertension on heart

When we do some physical work and in anger causes over releasing the stress hormones like angiotensin which make heart rate faster than natural and also pump more blood, resulting in high pressure on arteries. Hypertension leads to the higher risk for heart diseases because extra workload makes the heart muscle thicken and spread, when the heart becomes too enlarged it can't pump enough blood. So we need to treat hypertension or high blood pressure. If it is untreated it can lead to other complications like heart attack, Arteriosclerosis, stroke.

Hypertension effects on Kidneys

The kidney removes the blood wastes from the body. Due to the hypertension kidney are most affected and the filtration process becomes very slow. After some time kidneys are failed which is also known as renal failure or kidney failure and waste get built-in blood. Kidney transport and dialysis are the treatment when the kidney fails. But these treatments are not so effective.                                                                                                               

Role of the kidney in Hypertension

1- Inability of the kidney to excrete sodium and promote salt excretion with the side effects of raising total peripheral resistance.

2- An overactive kidney-angiotensin system leads to the retention of sodium and water. An increase in blood volume leads to hypertension.

Diagnosis of hypertension

Hypertension can be diagnosed with the checking of blood pressure. It’s important to check blood pressure regularly. It can be checked with SPHTGAMOMANOMETER. A cloth cover is wrapped around the upper arm and inflated which is temporarily stopping the blood flow in the artery. The air is let out the cuff while a stethoscope placed on the artery is used to feel the sound of the blood. The first sound when the heart beats this is the systolic pressure and when the last sound heard is the diastolic pressure.

But now the Digital Blood Pressure machines are available for more accurate and fast results. These machines are easy to use for every normal person.


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Stages of Hypertension according to  Blood pressure

Normal blood pressure – 120/80mmHg 

Pre- Hypertension – 120- 129/80-89 mm Hg

The first stage of hypertension – 140-159/90-99 mm Hg       

The second stage of hypertension- 160-179/100-109mm Hg

Hypertension can harm the blood vessels of the eyes,  which is detected by the ophthalmoscope.  Chest X rays are used to check the enlargement of the heart and other irregularities like lung diseases.  ECG( electrocardiogram) can observe the heart muscles. Urine and blood tests detect the disorders in the body.



Treatment of Hypertension

There is no permanent treatment for primary or essential hypertension. Secondary hypertension can be treated with changing lifestyles and combo of antihypertensive medicines. We can change our diet, reduce weight, manage the stress level, quitting smoke, and reduce consumption of alcohol which is really very helpful to treat hypertension and high blood pressure. When we change our lifestyle including bad habits it can reduce the blood pressure up to 5/10mmHg. This is the simplest way to treat all abnormalities.

A number of antihypertensive drugs can be prescribed for Hypertension but they all have other side effects. So firstly we can change our routine and try to cure hypertension after that we can take medications.

Antihypertensive drugs for Hypertension

1. Diuretics - these drugs are used to help the kidneys in the elimination of the excess salts and water.  Diuretics are first given to most of the patients that suffer from high blood pressure or hypertension.

2. Calcium channel blockers - These drugs block the passage of calcium in the arteries. Because calcium improves the blood pressure and calcium channel blockers are reduce the calcium.

3. Beta-blockers – these are acts on the nervous system to drop off the blood pressure and slow the heart rate. These are preferred to the patients with heart failure, asthma diabetes, blood circulation problems in the hands and feet.

4. Alpha-blockers - these are also acting on the nervous system and dilate the pressure on arteries resulting in lower the force of the heart’s contraction.

5. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme inhibitors or ACE blockers – these are used to reduce the production of salts and water in tissues. These are heart medications that broaden or enlarge blood vessels of our bodies. They can be used together with diuretics.

Prevention of Hypertension

we can prevent this is reducing salt intake, losing weight, reducing fat intake, regular exercise, medication for reducing stress level and anger and reducing alcohol consumption.

A good lifestyle and the combination of antihypertensive drugs are the only things that can cure hypertension. There is no permanent treatment we can just prevent this.

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